Annals of African Medical Research https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr <p>The <strong>Annals of African Medical Research (AAMR)</strong> is a multidisciplinary medical journal published by the College of Medical Sciences, <em>Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi</em> Nigeria. AAMR is an open source, peer reviewed and international journal providing rich sources of high impact African medical research outputs and beyond.</p> <h4>Focus, Scope and Objectives</h4> <p>The journal welcomes high quality research works in Biomedicine, Medical and Allied Health Sciences, including Original Articles, Review Articles, Letters to the Editor, Case Notes, Field Notes, Pictures and Reports. The vision of AAMR is to redefine the global perception of Africa’s Medical Research through consistent and persistent publication of high quality research works and to create international medium for scholarly sharing of knowledge between Africa and the rest of the world. The mission of AAMR is to be the front runner, closing the gap in African medical research publication and the global scientific community. Equipped with team of experienced editors and international advisory board made of scholars from Africa, Asia, Middle East, USA, Europe and the United Kingdom. All manuscripts submitted to AAMR shall be subjected to timely peer review and accepted by the editorial board upon satisfactorily meeting all publications requirements specified by both the editorial board and the publisher. Other guidelines and processing fees are specified with the publisher’s guidelines for prospective authors.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Annals of African Medical Research 2611-6642 <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li>the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li>a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> Anxiety and depression in pregnancy: prevalence and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/13 <p>Pregnancy is not considered as a pathological state, however pregnancy heightens the vulnerability to emotional and psychological condition such as anxiety and depression. Untreated depression and anxiety during pregnancy may have negative effects on both the mother and the fetus. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Cross sectional descriptive study using systematic sampling technique was used to collect data among 297 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6.0). About one-third of the respondents were in the age group 20- 25 years. The prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy were found to be 23.2% and 26.6% respectively. Risk factors that were significantly associated with anxiety during pregnancy were co-morbid depression during pregnancy (P=0.01), and partner abuse (P=0.04), with 37.5% anxious among those abused compared to 21.5% among those not abused. Risk factors associated with depression during pregnancy were co-existing medical condition (P=0.04) with 45.7% of respondents with coexisting medical condition found to be depressed compared to 24.0% without co-existing medical condition. Anxiety and depression in pregnancy were found to be prevalent among the study subjects. Measures to detect anxiety and depression during pregnancy especially in those with risk factors should be introduced during routine antenatal care.</p> Muktar Ahmed Gadanya Aisha Aliyu Abulfathi Fatima Adam Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.13 Thyroid peroxidase antibody levels among human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in Kano, North-Western Nigeria https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/15 <p>Autoimmunity plays a role in the development of thyroid dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This study assessed the serum levels of thyroid peroxidise antibody (TPO-Ab) in relation to the various forms of thyroid dysfunction in HIV patients in Kano. Free tri-iodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and TPO-Ab were measured using Chemiluminescent immunoassay(CLIA) on the serum of 70 HIV sero-positive patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, as Group I), 70 HAART naïve HIV sero-positive patients (Group II) and 70 apparently healthy HIV negative controls (Group III). The prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions were 55.7%, 42.9% and 2.8% among groups I, II and III respectively. TPO-Ab was elevated in 1 (1.43%) HIV positive patient on HAART, Group I, that also had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Four participants (5.7%) among group III were found to have elevated anti-TPO levels. Thyroid dysfunction was more common among HIV-positive than HIV-negative participants. Thyroid dysfunction among HIV patients was mainly non-autoimmune in origin. However, thyroid autoimmunity appears to play a little role in the development of hyperthyroidism in HIV patients.</p> Isah A. Yahaya Sherifah U. Sherif Kabiru Abdulsalam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.15 Hepatic effect of the sub-chronic exposure to mosquito coil smoke in albino mice https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/23 <p>The hepatic effect of chronic inhalation of mosquito coil smoke in mice was investigated. Mosquito coil smoke is mosquito repellent incense made from dried pyrethrum powder. It is widely used in Africa, Asia and South America. Exposure to mosquito coil smoke may lead to coughing, sneezing, and inflammation of trachea, renal damage, weight loss, headache, itching and skin reaction. It decreases the protein biosynthetic activity of the liver. This could affect capacity of serum protein-mediated transport of various substances. Goldeer mosquito coil containing 0.03% Transfluthrin, manufactured in Kano, Nigeria and purchased in Zaria was used for this experiment. Twenty-four (24) male mice (20-40 g), were divided into four groups of six mice each and exposed for six weeks to mosquito coil smoke for 1, 2 and 3 hours in an inhalation chamber. The animals were humanely sacrificed and the their blood samples collected and analysed for the enzymes, Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) as markers of Hepatic function. Also, their brain tissues were collected, homogenized and centrifuged and the supernatants assayed for oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT). Data were analysed using one way ANOVA and expressed as Mean±SEM with value of P&lt;0.05 considered statistically significant. The result showed that the mosquito coil smoke exposure in mice does not cause any significant change in liver enzymes, MDA and SOD. However, there were significant increases in CAT activity (43.83±1.85) and (41.67±1.36) as compared to control (38.50±1.00).</p> Mshelia P. Paul Rabiu M. Magaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.23 Sero-prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in a teaching hospital in Bauchi, North-Eastern Nigeria https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/28 <p>About a third of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive population worldwide is co-infected with <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</em>. However, data are lacking about the prevalence of HIV among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a teaching hospital in Bauchi, northeast Nigeria. The aim of this study is to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among patients with sputum smear positive PTB at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH), Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. This is a retrospective study review of patients’ medical records diagnosed with sputum smear positive PTB that attended and received treatment at directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) clinic of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH), Bauchi, Bauchi State, North-Eastern Nigeria from January, 2015- December, 2017. All the patients were newly diagnosed with sputum smear positive PTB using ZN stain testing of their sputum and screened for HIV antibodies. There were 155 patients studied comprising of 95 (61.29%) males and 60 (38.71%) females. One hundred and twenty (77.42%) patients were seronegative and 35 (22.58%) sero-positive for HIV. Most of the patients were within the ages of 15-54 years with mean age of 34.63±15.55. The sero-prevalence of HIV infection among the patients is 22.58%. Sero-prevalence of HIV is observed to be high among young and married patients with secondary level of education. The sero-prevalence of HIV infection among the patients is relatively lower than those reported in most parts of Nigeria and the sub-Saharan Africa, hence there is still need for continued screening of HIV antibodies among patients with PTB so as to reduce the morbidity and mortality that may result from the coinfection.</p> Sabiu Abdu Gwalabe Jacob Dunga Yusuf Jibrin Bara Alkali Muhammad Mustapha Sabo Umar Sule Bathna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.28 Assessing physicians’ intention to prescribe antimicrobials for chronic HIV/AIDS associated diarrhea among adults in Nigeria, using the theory of planned behavior https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/5 <p>Chronic diarrhea remains one of the commonest manifestation of HIV and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality despites gains in greater access to antiretroviral drugs and treatments of opportunistic infections globally. Yet, there is lack of precise evidence about the place of antimicrobials in chronic HIV associated diarrhea among adults. Physicians have continued to prescribe antimicrobials empirically or otherwise for chronic HIV associated diarrhea among adults. The aim of this study is to assess Physicians’ intension to prescribe antimicrobials in chronic HIV associated diarrhea among adults in Nigeria using the constructs of theory of planned behavior: <em>Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived behavioral control</em>. An exploratory cross sectional survey was carried out. A structured questionnaire was developed following a pilot study to elicit salient beliefs among Physicians and a review of the literature. The study was carried out in 3 Northern Nigerian states among Physicians in Primary/Secondary and Tertiary hospitals in 2014. Data was analyzed using SPSS and STATA. After descriptive statistics, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the key constructs of TPB and Physician’s intension to prescribe antimicrobials in chronic HIV associated diarrhea among adults. We found strong intention to prescribe antimicrobials among Physicians respondents. The constructs of the theory of planned behavior explained 40% of variance of the Physicians’ intention to prescribe antimicrobials for chronic AIDS associated diarrhea in adults. Perceived control behavior and knowledge were the most important components of the model associated with intention. This study has further added new knowledge to the pool of evidence that Perceived Control Beliefs and Knowledge significantly influence Physicians’ intention to prescribe antimicrobials in chronic AIDS associated diarrhea. This finding reinforces the utility of theory of planned behavior as a tool to study health care service provision and utilization. There is need for future studies to test if changes in perceived control behavior and knowledge will leads to changes in intention to prescribe antimicrobials for chronic AIDS associated diarrhea and ultimately leading to a change in the clinical practice of managing chronic AIDS associated diarrhea in adults.</p> Yusuf Abdu Misau Muhammad Bashir Faruk Sabiu Abdu Gwalabe Usman Usman Sunusi Dominic Mogere Suleiman Abdallah Mbaruk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.5 Postural instability in Parkinson's patients https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/26 <p>Postural instability is a major cause of disability in patients with Parkinson’s disease and therefore increases their dependence on other people and decreases the quality of life in these patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Postural instability and its onset in patients with Parkinson’s disease. We evaluated 250 Parkinson’s patients who referred to the movement disorder Clinic during 2016. All patient information, including gender, age, onset time of symptoms, as well as the time interval between symptoms start to postural instability were recorded. A total of 41 patients (16.4%) had a Postural instability, there was no significant difference between the two groups with and without instability in the distribution of sex and mean age. The mean age for the onset of symptoms in men and women was 54±11/3 and 50/6±12.2 respectively Which was significantly lower in women than in men (P value: 0.026). Also, the mean time between the onset of symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and the onset of motor instability was 5.2±4.9. This time was 8.2±4.5 in men and 11.5±5.7 in women which is significantly shorter in men than women (P value: 0.047). In our society, 16.4% of patients with Parkinson’s disease have a motor instability .this outbreak is independent of the variables of gender and age of the patients. According to our study, although women tend to experience signs of Parkinson’s disease earlier than men, the time interval between the onset of the disease manifestation and the onset of postural instability in males was shorter than that of women.</p> Amir Hassan Habibi Sogand Arab Farzad Sina Saeed Razmeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.26 Recurrent acute urinary retention following a female genital mutilation in an 11-year-old-girl https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/8 <p>Acute urinary retention is a urological emergency presenting with a sudden inability to pass urine due to mechanical or functional reason characterized by suprapubic pain and distension requiring urgent bladder drainage. Acute urinary retention is ten times more common in males than females. Female genital mutilation comprises all surgical procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injuries to the female genital organ for cultural and other non-therapeutic reasons. We present an 11 year old girl who was referred from a primary health centre with recurrent history of acute urinary retention following a female genital mutilation done 5 days prior to presentation, she was said to have been having suprapubic tapping of the urine to relive her of the retention as the health providers were unable to identify the urethral orifice for catheterization. On examination; she was in painful distress with complain of suprapubic pain and urge to pass urine, there is tender suprapubic distention, the left upper labia majora, minora and clitoris were severed, the urethral meatus distorted. Examination under anaesthesia with suprapubic cystostomy and urethral catheterisation was done and the patient was placed on sitz bath and genital toileting. We report a case of acute urinary retention in an 11 year old girl following a female genital mutilation five days earlier.</p> Makama Baje Salihu Stephen Yusuf Aliyu D. Labaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.8 Hydatidiform mole coexisting with normal foetus: A rare presentation of a case report from University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/16 <p>A twin pregnancy comprising a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a foetus is a rare obstetric condition with an incidence of 1 in 22,000 to 1 in 100,000 pregnancies. The management of such case is challenging due to the associated risk of maternal and foetal complications. We report a case of a 25-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1 with a normal intrauterine pregnancy coexisting with complete hydatidiform mole. An ultrasound scan demonstrated normal foetus and placenta along with coexistent intrauterine echogenic mass with features of hydatidiform mole. The microscopic examination of the abnormal placenta confirmed complete hydatidiform mole. Although twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent foetus is associated with increased risk of developing maternal and foetal complications, continuation of pregnancy may be an acceptable option under close monitoring to detect early signs of complications.</p> Abba Kabir Abdulkarim A. Kullima Adamu I. Adamu Anna Peter Abba Z. Bukar Haruna A. Nggada ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.16 A critical appraisal on migration of health workers from developing to developed countries https://aamronline.org/index.php/aamr/article/view/12 <p>Not available</p> Muhammad Baffah Aminu Lamaran Makama Dattijo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 1 1 10.4081/aamr.2018.12