Annals of African Medical Research 2019-11-12T01:48:05+01:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Annals of African Medical Research (AAMR)</strong> is a multidisciplinary medical journal published by the College of Medical Sciences, <em>Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi</em> Nigeria. AAMR is an open source, peer reviewed and international journal providing rich sources of high impact African medical research outputs and beyond.</p> <h4>Focus, Scope and Objectives</h4> <p>The journal welcomes high quality research works in Biomedicine, Medical and Allied Health Sciences, including Original Articles, Review Articles, Letters to the Editor, Case Notes, Field Notes, Pictures and Reports. The vision of AAMR is to redefine the global perception of Africa’s Medical Research through consistent and persistent publication of high quality research works and to create international medium for scholarly sharing of knowledge between Africa and the rest of the world. The mission of AAMR is to be the front runner, closing the gap in African medical research publication and the global scientific community. Equipped with team of experienced editors and international advisory board made of scholars from Africa, Asia, Middle East, USA, Europe and the United Kingdom. All manuscripts submitted to AAMR shall be subjected to timely peer review and accepted by the editorial board upon satisfactorily meeting all publications requirements specified by both the editorial board and the publisher. Other guidelines and processing fees are specified with the publisher’s guidelines for prospective authors.</p> Antioxidant potentials of Miyan Kuka (Baobab leaves) 2019-11-12T01:48:01+01:00 Eduitem S. Otong Sunday A. Musa <p>Antioxidant is any substance that directly scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) or indirectly acts to up-regulate antioxidant defenses or inhibit ROS production. The review is aimed at highlighting the components of baobab leaves with antioxidant capabilities. Articles were searched from the Directory of Open Access Journals, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct using key words such as composition of baobab leaves, antioxidant properties of baobab leaf, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and antioxidant. The result showed that boabab leaves are good sources of food with a lot of antioxidant components such as vitamin C, carotenes, flavonoids, zinc etc. These antioxidant components help to regulate ROS including free radicals such as superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, as well as non-radical molecules like hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen. Baobab leaves carry out the antioxidant activities through the following processes: scavenging and neutralizing free radicals, singlet oxygen quenching, superoxide radical scavenging, hydrogen donation, metal chelating, enzymes inhibition, peroxide decomposing and synergies. They also help in activating antioxidant enzymes, reduce α-tocopherol radicals, reduce nitrosative stress, prevent oxidases, and increase levels of uric acid and low molecular weight molecules which ultimately help to reduce oxidation in the long run. Baobab leaves are rich in phytochemicals with a lot of antioxidant capabilities due to the present of several components like vitamin C, carotenes, flavenoids, etc. These components work in different ways to regulate reactive oxygen species and by extension prevent oxidative stress.</p> 2019-07-01T14:34:52+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Postnatal care uptake and associated factors among nursing mothers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:47:45+01:00 Andrew Obi Otaniyenuwa Obarisiagbon <p>Globally, postnatal care is a strategic public health intervention to aid significant reduction in maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the level of postnatal care (PNC) uptake and associated factors among nursing mothers for improved maternal and newborn outcomes in Benin City, Edo State. Two hundred and twenty (220) nursing mothers attending immunization clinics in University of Benin Teaching hospital, Benin City were studied using a descriptive cross-sectional study design. Data analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS version 21.0 statistical software after sorting and collating researcher administered questionnaire. Results were represented as prose, frequency tables and figures, univariate and bivariate analysis to assess postnatal care uptake and associated factors was carried out with level of significance set at P&lt;0.050. Two hundred and five (93.2%) of the respondents studied registered and attended antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy. One hundred and twenty-one (55.5%) of respondents studied had good knowledge of PNC, 190 (86.4%) had a positive attitude towards PNC, while 159 (72.3%) attended PNC. ANC registration (P&lt;0.001), knowledge of PNC (P=0.002) and attitude towards PNC (P=0.013) were identified as significant factors influencing PNC among nursing mothers. Postnatal care uptake was high among study participants. ANC registration was a major determinant of postnatal care uptake in the study area, in addition to also significantly influencing knowledge of PNC and attitude towards PNC among nursing mothers studied. There is need to sustain and improve on the gains of postnatal care (PNC) uptake among nursing mothers in Benin City, by promoting sensitizations campaigns to promote ANC registration and attendance among pregnant women.</p> 2019-09-09T13:25:27+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Adherence to drug treatment among schizophrenic patients in Jigawa State, Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:47:48+01:00 Ado Shehu Saleh Ngaski Garba Emmanuel Ejembi Anyebe Mb Tukur Hayat Gomma <p>Schizophrenia is among the most common psychiatric disorders, affecting approximately 1% of the world’s population and is among the leading cause of disability. Adherence to drug therapy is associated with favourable clinical outcomes and good quality of life among schizophrenic patients undergoing treatment. This study assessed the prevalence and factors responsible for adherence/ non-adherence to drug treatment among schizophrenic patients in Jigawa State. We used a descriptive hospital-based cross-sectional study design and recruited three hundred and ninety- nine patients using multi-stage sampling technique. The mean and standard deviation of age of the respondents was 42.3±11.2. The level of drug adherence was 47.1%. On bivariate analysis, cost of treatment, types of treatment, side effects, and effects of treatment on the performance were found to be associated with low adherence of drugs treatment (P&lt;0.05). On adjusting for confounding effect using logistic regression analysis, the cost of treatment of more than one thousand naira per day (AOR=3.00, 95%CI=2.75-8.83) and presence of side effects (AOR=4.01, 95%CI=1.45-16.09) were found to be predictors of non-adherence to drug treatments. Supervised community treatment, behavioural change communications along with community mental health care financing were recommended in order to increase access and decrease non-adherence to drugs.</p> 2019-09-09T13:02:45+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Knowledge and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Kano, Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:48:05+01:00 Ayyuba Rabiu Habiba Isah Ladu <p>Knowledge of birth preparedness and complication readiness in pregnant women is the process of planning for safe delivery and anticipating the action needed in case complications arise. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of birth preparedness and complication readiness, among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Murtala Muhammad specialist hospital, Kano. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire from 394 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic. The questions elicited pregnant women’s socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of birth preparedness and complication readiness, and the factors that influence them. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19 Computer Software. Three hundred and ninetyfour pregnant women were recruited within the period. The mean age ±SD was 26.9±6.21 years. Two hundred and ninety-four pregnant women (75.8%) were aware of the concept of birth preparedness, while 94 (24.2%) were oblivious. A larger proportion of the respondents 237 (60.2%) had the opinion that women can save money to prepare for birth, while 75 (19.0%) believed women should identify mode of transport as part of birth preparedness. Majority of the pregnant women 96 (54%) revealed that their community provides them with transport services as part of assistance during child birth. Educational status is associated with knowledge of birth preparedness (χ2= 4.081, P=0.05). The study revealed that there is fair knowledge of birth preparedness and complication readiness and saving money was the commonest birth preparedness practice known among the respondents.</p> 2019-07-01T14:04:47+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pattern of pediatric fine needle aspiration cytology and its utility in management of head and neck swellings in a tertiary hospital in northwestern Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:48:03+01:00 Hafsat Umar Ibrahim Halima Kabir Yusuf Ibrahim <p>Childhood malignancies have emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Diagnosis need to be accurate and fast to reduce this. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is an accepted modality employed in the diagnosis of adult and pediatric tumors. This study aims to review the pattern of pediatric FNAC from all sites done over a 10-year period, and its utility in the management of head and neck swellings. Records of all pediatric FNAC within the 10-year study period were retrospectively retrieved and analyzed. Data regarding age, sex, site of biopsy and FNAC diagnoses were extracted. Subsequent histologic diagnoses from the head and neck region were correlated with initial FNAC diagnoses from the same region. Data were presented in frequencies and percentages in tabular form. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of head and neck lesions were calculated. A total of 301 pediatric FNAC were recorded. There were 160 (53.8%) males and 141 (46.2%) females with a M: F ratio of 1.1:1. The average age was 7.2 ± 3.9 years. The highest frequency of 134 (44.5%) was seen in the 5-10 years age group. Benign cytological diagnoses were rendered in 243 (80.7%) while the remaining 58 (19.3%) were malignant. Of the total, 244 FNAC were from head and neck Swellings, 209(80.7%) were benign while the remaining were malignant. Sixty-two (62) cases of head and neck FNAC had subsequent histologic tissue diagnoses (considered the gold standard) which were compared with prior FNAC results. FNAC of the head and neck showed an accuracy 82.1%, sensitivity of 53.0%, specificity of 93.3%, PPV and NPV of 75.0% and 84.0% respectively. FNAC is an easy, fast, cheap and minimally invasive screening tool that is accurate for diagnosis in the management of pediatric head and neck swellings in our setting.</p> 2019-07-01T14:13:46+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bone marrow aspiration cytology in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi State, Nigeria: Indications and diagnostic utility 2019-11-12T01:47:59+01:00 Rufai Abdu Dachi Falmata Grema Mustapha Saleh Yuguda Modu Baba Kagu Ali Adamu Gwaram Philemon Bwala <p>Bone Marrow Aspiration (BMA) cytology is an important diagnostic and monitoring tool where cytological details of the marrow elements are examined using light microscopy. Various hematological diseases are diagnosed and monitored by using BMA. This study aimed at reporting a 3-year BMA experience of Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH) Bauchi. This was a retrospective study that involved the use of records of the bone marrow aspirates done from January 1st, 2016 to December 31st, 2018. The age, sex, indications for BMA, anatomical site and final bone marrow diagnosis were collated. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 23.0 software. One hundred and three (103) bone marrow aspirations were performed during the period under review. Two third of the participants were males, with the median age of 40.0 years and a range of 5 months to 92 years. The commonest indication for BMA was recurrent anemia 45.6%, followed by splenomegaly, fever and lymphadenopathy with 11.7% each. While, the commonest diagnosis by BMA was megaloblastic anemia (28.2%). Mixed nutritional deficiency and Bone Marrow (BM) metastasis are the commoner BMA diagnoses with 12.6% each. Recurrent anemia is the commonest indication for BMA and nutritional anemias (megaloblastic and combined nutrients deficiency) are the commonest BMA diagnoses in Bauchi. Proper evaluation of patients by the clinicians before referral is recommended to ensure that only those that really need the procedure are subjected to it.</p> 2019-07-01T14:42:53+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Frontal plane knee alignment among normal northern Nigerian adults: A radiographic study 2019-11-12T01:47:57+01:00 Abdullahi Suleiman Gwani Eduitem Sunday Otong Sani Abubakar Bello Hamza Mustapha Ahmed Dlama Zira Joseph Yusuf Aliyu <p>Studies have shown that knee alignment parameters differ among races. However, to our knowledge, radiographic frontal plane knee alignment has not been studied in normal northern Nigerian adults. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the frontal plane knee alignment in normal northern Nigerian adults. This study recruited a total of 59 consented subjects (44 males, 15 females). The entire subjects are without any history of lower extremity deformity. Anteroposterior radiographs of both knees with the patella positioned straight ahead were obtained from each participant while standing in a relaxed bipedal stance and placing equal weight on each limb. Alignment was assessed by measuring the tibiofemoral angle (TFA), distal femoral angle (DFA) and proximal tibial angle (PTA). The angles were measured with the aid of a universal plastic goniometre and a plastic ruler. Descriptive statistics of the alignment parameters, independent and paired t-test were computed. In the male population, the mean (standard deviation) obtained were 179.06 (3.87)o for the TFA, 85.94 (3.03 o for the DFA and 89.27 (3.26)o for the PTA. In the female population, the values were 179.53 (3.38)o for the TFA, 86.40 (2.97)o for the DFA and 89.27 (2.15)o for the PTA. No significant mean difference was observed between genders in all the parameters. The TFA does not show any significant difference between the right and left angle regardless of gender. However, significant mean differences were observed in the DFA and PTA of males and combined population. No significant difference was observed in the DFA and PTA of females. Accordingly, northern Nigerian adults may have varus knee alignment compared to other races. Thus, this pre-existing varus alignment should be taken into consideration during clinical examination, preoperative planning and postoperative evaluations of knee deformities in this population.</p> 2019-07-02T08:26:16+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses among antenatal care attendees in Bauchi State, Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:47:52+01:00 Dada Mansur Mustapha Danladi Elizabeth Saba’atu Yusuf Abdu Misau Mohammed Alkali Onyi Titus Bashir Muhammad Faruk Sani Mohammed Dambam Iliyasu Hussaini Abubakar Auwal Alami-Adhama Madaki Abubakar Ibrahim <p>Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are blood borne viral infection with huge disease burden on pregnant women and their babies especially in Bauchi, Nigeria. Data on the prevalence rates of these infections would aid the clinical management and public health control of these infections. The study determined the prevalent rates of HIV, HBV and HCV among ante-natal care (ANC) attendees in health facilities in Bauchi State, north-eastern Nigeria. This is a a descriptive study that reviewed data secondarily from 13 health facilities in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Data were collected for a 12-month period from July 2017 - June 2018. The study found the following average prevalence rates among the ANC attendees: HIV (0.71%), HBV (1.57%) and HCV (0.64%). The study found low but significant prevalent rates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among the ANC attendees. The study recommends for strengthening of preventive and curatives measures against these viruses among the pregnant women. These include health education, HBV vaccination, anti-retroviral therapy and early diagnosis and treatment of these viruses. The study also recommends for appropriate, complete and consistent medical records to monitor these viruses. Further studies are required for the HIV, HBV and HCV infections and their co-infections among the pregnant women.</p> 2019-07-30T10:19:24+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transabdominal Doppler ultrasound evaluation of blood flow patterns of the uterine arteries in cervical cancer patients in Zaria, North-Western Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:47:49+01:00 I. Garba M.Z. Ibrahim S. Lawal N.D. Chom P.O. Ibinaiye <p>Cervical cancer remains an important health issue especially in the developing countries that account for about 85% of the world burden of cervical cancer. Finding a role for Doppler ultrasound in the evaluation of these patients, may reduce the cost and improve access to management. This study was aimed at evaluating the Doppler flow parameters in patients with cervical cancer when compared to normal subjects. This was a prospective case control, descriptive and observational study conducted in radiology department, ABU Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Eighty-one patients with cervical cancer and 81 age-matched controls had transabdominal Doppler ultrasound examination of the main uterine arteries. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 Chicago Illinois USA. Difference between two groups was tested using student ttest and P&lt;0.05 considered as statistically significant. The mean Resistivity Index (RI) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were significantly lower in patients with cervical cancer than the control (P&lt;0.0001). The mean end diastolic velocity was significantly higher in patients than the control (P&lt;0.0001). There was however no significant difference in the mean peak systolic velocity in patients and control (P=0.97). The findings have demonstrated that significant differences exist in the uterine artery Doppler flow parameters in patients with cervical cancer compared to the healthy controls. This emphasizes the role of Doppler scan in the evaluation and management of patients with cervical cancer.</p> 2019-07-30T10:29:04+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and the risk of diabetes mellitus in Gombe State, northeast Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:47:42+01:00 Sule J. Bathna Jacob A. Dunga Nura H. Alkali Jafiada J. Musa Abubakar A. Gombe Sulaiman Y. Yusuf Ojobi Joseph Shamaki R. Baba <p>Alcohol is consumed in almost all countries worldwide. Heavy drinking can reduce the body’s sensitivity to insulin, which can trigger type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can complicate chronic pancreatitis, which is overwhelmingly caused by heavy alcohol drinking. Alcohol is also high in calories, with heavy drinkers liable to obesity and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Similarly, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among both middle-aged and elderly men and women. Nigeria is one of the three largest tobacco markets in Africa with a population of almost 13 million smokers. Northeast Nigeria ranks 3rd among the six geopolitical zones, with a smoking rate of 6.1%. In this study, we evaluated the risks of diabetes mellitus associated with alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in Gombe State, Northeast Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in a two-stage cluster sampling scheme based on existing administrative divisions. Study subjects were males and females aged 16 years and older who resided in the Jekadafari Ward of Gombe Metropolis. Subjects were excluded from this study if they were less than 16 years of age, pregnant women or suffered chronic conditions such as chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease or chronic lung diseases based on clinical history and laboratory results. The calculated sample size was 1600 based on a 3.1% prevalence rate of DM, with a power of 85% and precision of 5%. We obtained complete data on 1302 subjects, of whom 50 (3.8%) had DM. (5.1% in males and 2.86% in females). Alcohol use was prevalent among 365 (28.03%) subjects, and was higher in males (49.4%) compared to females (11.4%). The risk of DM was significantly higher among alcoholusers compared to non-users, with an odds ratio of 4.1 (95%CI: 2.3- 7.3; P=0.0001). Eighty-eight subjects were cigarette smokers, of whom 87 were males and only one was female. We found no significant association between cigarette smoking and DM (OR=0.34, 95%CI 0.05-2.48; P=0.29). The overall prevalence of DM was 3.9%. Alcohol consumption, but not cigarette smoking, was associated with a higher risk of DM in this study.</p> 2019-10-03T15:15:32+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Type 2 diabetes mellitus in an obese adolescent girl in Bauchi, northeast Nigeria 2019-11-12T01:47:55+01:00 Muhammad Faruk Bashir Idris Abiodun Adedeji Adamu Sa'idu Adamu Yusuf Abdu Misau Nurrudeen Tanimu Dariya Abbas Mohammed Abdulsalam <p>The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among children and adolescents is on the rise and this correlates well with increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight worldwide. T2DM was thought to be a disease of the adults, however this has since changed. High index of suspicion is required especially in obese children with family history of type T2DM. To the best of our literature search, till date, no case was reported from Northeast Nigeria. We hereby report a case of newly diagnosed type 2 DM in a 14-year old obese teenage girl, who presented with polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss. Her father is a T2DM patient. She had acanthosis and multiple ovarian cysts. She underwent acute phase of care with insulin before discharge and has remained euglycaemic and clinically state on oral hypoglycaemic agent.</p> 2019-07-05T15:31:23+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##