Annals of African Medical Research 2020-03-18T17:17:19+00:00 Emanuela Fusinato Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Annals of African Medical Research (AAMR)</strong> is a multidisciplinary medical journal published by the College of Medical Sciences, <em>Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi</em> Nigeria. AAMR is an open source, peer reviewed and international journal providing rich sources of high impact African medical research outputs and beyond.</p> <h4>Focus, Scope and Objectives</h4> <p>The journal welcomes high quality research works in Biomedicine, Medical and Allied Health Sciences, including Original Articles, Review Articles, Letters to the Editor, Case Notes, Field Notes, Pictures and Reports. The vision of AAMR is to redefine the global perception of Africa’s Medical Research through consistent and persistent publication of high quality research works and to create international medium for scholarly sharing of knowledge between Africa and the rest of the world. The mission of AAMR is to be the front runner, closing the gap in African medical research publication and the global scientific community. Equipped with team of experienced editors and international advisory board made of scholars from Africa, Asia, Middle East, USA, Europe and the United Kingdom. All manuscripts submitted to AAMR shall be subjected to timely peer review and accepted by the editorial board upon satisfactorily meeting all publications requirements specified by both the editorial board and the publisher. Other guidelines and processing fees are specified with the publisher’s guidelines for prospective authors.</p> Level of male involvement in selected maternal health interventions involving nursing mothers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria 2020-02-20T13:25:11+00:00 Andrew Obi Blessed Onoriose Vincent Adam Ekaete Tobin Kehinde Osazee Efeomon Eseigbe <p>Nigeria contributes an estimated 19% of global pregnancy related mortalities. The involvement of men in maternal health interventions has immense implications for the uptake and thereby success of such interventions. This study assessed level of male involvement in selected maternal health interventions involving nursing mothers in Benin City, Edo State with a view to providing information to improve the implementation and success of these interventions. A descriptive facility based cross-sectional study design was carried out among two hundred and twenty nursing mothers attending selected immunization clinics in a health facility in Benin City, Edo State. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaires and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.0 statistical software with statistical significance set at P&lt;0.050. The mean (SD) age of male partners of nursing mothers studied was 38.1 (6.4) years. In relation to selected maternal interventions 205 (93.2%) registered for antenatal care (ANC), 159 (72.3%) attended postnatal care (PNC) while family planning uptake was 30 (13.6%). Furthermore, in relation to level of male involvement, 150 (68.2%) male partners paid for ANC registration, 143 (65.0%) accompanied spouse to delivery, 205 (93.2%) paid for delivery, 14 (8.8%) accompanied wife for PNC and 57 (34.5%) supported spouse uptake of family planning. The overall level of male involvement was good 113 (51.4%) among nursing mothers. This&nbsp;study identified that male involvement in selected maternal health interventions was good, in relation to male performance the highest being payment for delivery and least being postnatal care attendance. There is need to sustain and improve on the level of male involvement in relation to maternal health interventions to ensure better maternal and child health outcome in the study population.</p> 2020-01-15T13:45:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Andrew Obi, Blessed Onoriose, Vincent Adam, Ekaete Tobin, Kehinde Osazee, Efeomon Eseigbe Pattern of otitis media in young children and adolescents with traditional uvulectomy in Kano, Nigeria 2020-02-20T13:24:45+00:00 Abdulrazak Ajiya <p>Traditional uvulectomy is not an uncommon practice in Nigeria and most part of sub-Saharan Africa. Its practice is well documented in these countries. Traditional uvulectomy and otitis media are both prevalent in Nigeria. However, there is a dearth of studies on a causal relationship between the two in the Nigerian subpopulation. This study aims to assess the pattern of otitis media among young children and adolescents who had traditional uvulectomy. This study was a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted on all consecutive eligible consenting patients aged 5- to 18-years seen in the ear, nose and throat clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital with amputated uvula detected during routine examination were recruited. A standard tool was developed to obtain data from the patients. Thereafter otoscopy was done for all the patients. A total of 400 patients were recruited into the study, 246 (61.5%) were male and 154 (38.5%) female. The mean (standard deviation) of age was 12.4 (3.8) years. The commonest indication for traditional uvulectomy among the patients was as ritual [356 (89%)] with the least been speech disorder and failure to&nbsp;thrive [3 (76%)] each. Most (60%) had no symptoms suggestive of otitis media over the years. However, most (263 and 259 in the right and left ear respectively) participants had dull tympanic membrane on otoscopy. Majority (280) had their uvulectomy in the neonatal period, and post uvulectomy complications were low (17%). Symptoms of otitis media are not a common finding in patients with traditionally amputated uvulae.</p> 2020-01-15T13:58:45+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 the authors Prevalence of pica among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary facility in Nigeria 2020-02-20T13:24:17+00:00 Muhammad Baffah Aminu Alkali Mohammed Bala Audu Muhammed Toyin Abdulrazak Aniobi Chinedu <p>One of the unusual symptoms observed among pregnant women is the aversion for non-food substances like sand, clay and ice. Pica is a form of eating disorder characterised by these symptoms. It occurs commonly in children and among pregnant women. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors for Pica among booked patients in our institution. A prospective study was conducted among pregnant women at booking aged 11-45 years at the ATB University teaching Hospital Bauchi between 1<sup>st</sup> February to 31<sup>st</sup> of July 2019. All pregnant women who gave their consent were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The biodata, risk factors for Pica, occurrence in childhood and other social habits were recorded. The result showed a prevalence rate of pica at 38.9% with a craving for ice (18.7%), sand (14.7%) and others (55.11%). Pica was observed more in the day time (afternoon and evening) and most women having pica had a low level of education. Even though the prevalence of Pica appeared low in our environment, adequate counselling and appropriate treatment of women with this condition should be given more priority.</p> 2020-01-15T14:04:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammad Baffah Aminu, Alkali Mohammed, Bala Audu Muhammed, Toyin Abdulrazak, Aniobi Chinedu Awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services among primary health care providers in Zaria 2020-02-20T13:23:51+00:00 Anisah Yahya Zubair Hadi Ismail Umma Suleiman Bawa <p>Cervical cancer screening services have led to a significant decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer in countries were such services are implemented as population-based services. Cervical cancer still remains the most commonly diagnosed cancer in several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Eastern Asia. This study explored the awareness, utilization and provision of cervical screening services among Primary Health Care providers in Zaria, Nigeria. A qualitative study was conducted among Primary Health Care providers in Zaria Local Government Area Kaduna State Nigeria. Five Primary Health Care centres were purposively selected for the study. Data was collected using Focus Group discussion method. The data from the discussion sessions were recorded on tape and transcribed verbatim to capture the exact messages. The transcripts were then analysed into themes. Majority of the participants were within 30-39-year age range, 75% were females, 64.3% were Community Health Extension Workers’ and 42.9% had &gt;10 years working experience. The major themes were awareness of cervical cancer, awareness of cervical cancer screening methods, knowledge about cervical cancer screening methods and utilization. Many participants were not well informed about cervical cancer screening methods. Uptake among female participants was also low. In light of these findings, there is a need to train the health personnel in Primary Health Care centres on cervical cancer screening so that they can adequately educate women on cervical cancer screening.</p> 2020-01-20T09:16:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Anisah Yahya, Zubair Hadi Ismail, Umma Suleiman Bawa Multi-drug resistance in early and late onset neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria 2020-02-20T13:23:24+00:00 Lateefat O. Sa’adu Tope O. Obasa Aishat O. Saka Mohammed J. Saka Charles Nwabuisi <p>Neonatal sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterized by systemic signs of infection, and accompanied by bacteremia in the first month of life and is responsible for 30-50% of total neonatal deaths, each year in developing countries. This study investigated multi-drug resistant organisms associated with early and late onset neonatal sepsis in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. One hundred and sixty-two blood samples from neonates admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit of UITH with clinical diagnosis of sepsis were obtained. One milliliter of blood was taken per neonate and cultured aerobically in brain heart infusion broth and sub cultured onto blood and MacConkey agar plates. Identification of the isolates was carried out by colonial morphology, Gram stain microscopy and several biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the modified Kirby-Bauer method, screening for methicillin resistance <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) was done by the cefoxiin- based methods and double disc synergy test respectively. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft excel version 2007 and Epi-info version 2012. Sepsis was confirmed bacteriologically in 22.2% of the samples. The prevalence of multidrug resistant isolate was 29.0%. The prevalence of MRSA was found to be 37% while that of ESBL producing Enterobacteria was 44.4% with ESBL producing <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> prevalence of 50% and 25% respectively. This study shows a high prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em> causing neonatal sepsis in UITH Ilorin.</p> 2020-01-20T12:28:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Lateefat O. Sa’adu, Tope O. Obasa, Aishat O. Saka, Mohammed J. Saka, Charles Nwabuisi Role of potash extract (Jar Kanwa) in suppression of male sexual desire: A study among Wister rats 2020-03-18T17:17:19+00:00 Idris Sulaiman Abubakar Ayyuba Rabiu <p>Consumption of potash extract is traditionally used for suppression of male sexual desire and as a fertility control method even before the emergence of modern contraceptives. This research was aimed at determining potash extract’s role in suppression of male sexual desire. Four groups of virgin Wister rats were formed of which three groups were given different doses of potash extract and the fourth group as control. They were monitored for sexual desire with CCTV cameras and were sacrificed after 28 days. Serum testosterone and estrogen levels were assayed and sperm analysis was carried out. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19 Statistical Software. A p&lt;0.05 was considered as significant. Findings showed that higher doses of this potash extract (500 mg/kg and 1,000 mg/kg) stimulated more sexual desire, evidenced by increased duration of mounting. However, Serum testosterone and estrogen levels as proxy markers of sexual desire were found low in a dose dependent manner and with narrow margin of effects. The study showed no statistically significant difference between the control group and different treatment groups of potash extract on parameters of sperm analysis.</p> 2020-03-17T08:04:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 the authors Persistence of low back/pelvic girdle pains in women after pregnancy: An experience from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria 2020-03-18T17:16:52+00:00 Ayyuba Rabiu Mustapha Ibrahim Usman Muhammad Kabir Abubakar Sulaiman Muhammad Daneji Ibrahim Garba Shamsuddeen Muhammad Idris Sulaiman Abubakar <p>Persistence of symptoms of low back pains and pelvic girdle pains are frequent complaints after pregnancy. Knowledge of back pain prevention and back education is essential for prevention and relief of persistence pains after delivery. The aim is to determine the factors that are associated with persistence of low back/girdle pains after pregnancy, the severity of the pains and measures undertaken by the patients for alleviation of this chronic condition. The study was a cross sectional survey. Ethics approval was obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Ethics Committee. Information such as socio demographic characteristics of the clients, persistence and severity of low back pains/pelvic girdle pains after pregnancy and associated risk factors, was asked and documented on a questionnaire. Consecutive, consenting clients were recruited for the survey. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS Version 19. Qualitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. χ2 and Fishers’ Exact tests were used, where appropriate, for categorical data. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. During the period, 51 patients with chronic back/pelvic girdle pains or both were recruited. Their mean age (±SD) was 30.9±5.62 years. Bed rest was the most means of relief of low back/pelvic girdle pains. Variables such as advancing age, ethnic group, high parity, educational status and obesity were found to be present and high among patients with persistence of low back/pelvic girdle pains. However, only their employment status was found to be associated with the severity of their pains (χ2 =11.443, P=0.001). The survey showed only employment status was statistically associated with severity of the low back/pelvic girdle pains (χ2 =11.443, P=0.001). Other variables were not associated. There was low knowledge of back pain prevention and back education among the study group.</p> 2020-03-17T08:36:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 the authors Evaluation of serum levels of iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and ferritin in chronic kidney disease patients vs. control group 2020-03-18T17:16:26+00:00 Hafsatu Maiwada Suleiman Mohammed Amina Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf Rasheed Mohammed Jibril El-Bashir Mohammed Manu Bello Jamoh Amina Dogara Bashir <p>The magnitude of chronic renal disease is enormous, as the prevalence of kidney failure is rising. Anaemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that develops early in its course and becomes increasingly severe as the disease progresses. The aim is to evaluate the serum level of iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and ferritin in chronic kidney disease population in Zaria and control subjects. This study was conducted at ABUTH Zaria were 125 patients in various stages of CKD who presented at the nephrology clinic and equal number of apparently healthy age and sex matched controls were recruited. The mean (SD) age of patient and controls were 48 (14) years. These were made up of 53.6% males, and 46.4% females. Mean values of serum creatinine significantly higher in the patients (&lt;0.0001). There was no significant difference in the mean values of iron (p=0.32) and TIBC (p=1.29) in both study groups. The patients had a significantly (p˂0.0001) higher mean value for ferritin and TSAT than the control group. There were higher serum creatinine and ferritin values in males than in females while higher serum TIBC, estimated creatinine clearance and iron were observed in females than males. Serum creatinine, ferritin and estimated creatinine clearance of male patients were found to be significantly higher with p-value of 0.002, 0.000 and 0.028 respectively than that of female patients. No significant differences were noted in serum levels of iron, TIBC and TSAT. Serum creatinine, ferritin and TSAT were found to be significantly elevated in CKD patients while serum Iron and TIBC were not.</p> 2020-03-17T08:59:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 the authors Acute transverse myelitis following carpet viper snakebite in Northeast Nigeria 2020-02-20T13:26:05+00:00 Nura H. Alkali Sulaiman T. Sa'ad Abubakar Saidu Jacob A. Dunga Fadimatu K. Sa'ad Godiya Ishaya <p>Snakebite is a major cause of death and disability in developing countries. The common clinical features of snake envenomation include bleeding, acute kidney injury, dilated pupils and muscle paralysis resulting from the deleterious effects of venom toxins on human plasma proteins, cell membranes, muscle fibers and vascular endothelium. Snakes also harbour pathogenic organisms that may infect bite victims during envenomation, but few studies have described this phenomenon. We herein report a rare case of acute transverse myelitis occurring after snakebite in Northeast Nigeria, and discuss the possible role of bacteria and viruses after excluding other potential causes of myelopathy. This knowledge may help improve the care of snakebite victims among internists and emergency physicians.</p> 2020-01-15T13:36:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nura H. Alkali, Sulaiman T. Sa'ad, Abubakar Saidu, Jacob A. Dunga, Fadimatu K. Sa'ad, Godiya Ishaya Left paranasal hemophilic pseudotumor in a 5-year-old boy: A case report 2020-02-20T13:25:38+00:00 Saleh Yuguda Ahmed Iya Girei Rufai Abdu Dachi Sani Adamu <p>Hemophilic pseudotumors are rare complications of hemophilia that are seen in 1-2% of patients commonly affecting patients with severe disease. Hemophilic pseudotumors occur as a result of recurrent poorly managed or untreated bleeding either in the soft tissue or bone. We report a 5-year-old boy with a previously undiagnosed hemophilia A who developed left paranasal swelling following a fall from a height. He was diagnosed with hemophilic pseudotumor and successfully managed conservatively with factor VIII replacement.</p> 2020-01-15T13:41:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Saleh Yuguda, Ahmed Iya Girei, Rufai Abdu Dachi, Sani Adamu