Prevalence of pica among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary facility in Nigeria
One of the unusual symptoms observed among pregnant women is the aversion for non-food substances like sand, clay and ice. Pica is a form of eating disorder characterised by these symptoms. It occurs commonly in children and among pregnant women. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors for Pica among booked patients in our institution. A prospective study was conducted among pregnant women at booking aged 11-45 years at the ATB University teaching Hospital Bauchi between 1st February to 31st of July 2019. All pregnant women who gave their consent were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The biodata, risk factors for Pica, occurrence in childhood and other social habits were recorded. The result showed a prevalence rate of pica at 38.9% with a craving for ice (18.7%), sand (14.7%) and others (55.11%). Pica was observed more in the day time (afternoon and evening) and most women having pica had a low level of education. Even though the prevalence of Pica appeared low in our environment, adequate counselling and appropriate treatment of women with this condition should be given more priority.
Neda B. Rasa Z. Mostapa N, Hassan J, Shaghayogh H.R prevalence and risk factors for pica during pregnancy in Tehran, Iran. Spring Jnt pol switz. 2015; 1-8
Mensah FO. Twomasi, P, Amonawonyo XK, Larbio C, Jnr AKB. Pica Practise among pregnant women in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. Int Health J. 2010; 2: 282-286
Young SL, at al. Association of pica with anaemia and gastrointestinal distress among pregnant women in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 83: 144-151 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0442
Moore D, Sears D. Pica, Iron deficiency and the medical history. Am J of Med 1994; 97: 390-393 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(94)90309-3
Woywodt A. Geophagia; the history of earth-eating. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2002;95 143-146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.95.3.143
Sayetta RB. Pica. An overview. Am.fam. physician. 1986, 33: 181-185
Ellis CR, Schnoes CJ. Eating disorder; pica. emed J. 2002; 3: 1-12
Lopez LB etal. Characteristics of pica practice during pregnancy in a sample of Argentine women. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012; 32: 150-153 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2011.638093
Callaha KL. Pica. Geophagy and rock art; ingestion of powder and clay by humans and its implications the production of some rock art on a global basis. A paper read at the Philadelphia, SAA conference on April 8
Sule S. Madugu HN. Pica in pregnant women in Zaria, Nigeria, Niger J Med 2001; 10 (1) 25-7.
Nyarohucha CN. Food cravings, aversions and pica among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2009; 11(1); 29-34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v11i1.43248
Young SL. Pica in pregnancy: new ideas about an old condition. 2010. Annu Rev Nutr; 30: 403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.012809.104713
Boatin A, Wylie B, Singh MP, Sing N, Yeboach-Antwi K, Hammer D. Prevalence of and risk factors for pica among pregnant women in Chhattisgarh, India. Am J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011; 206 5299 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2011.10.689
Thihalolipavan S, Candalla BM, Ehrlich J. Examining Pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated lead levels. Matern child Health J. 2013; 17: 49-55 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-012-0947-5
Tsuyoshi HTM. A rapid recovery from pagophagia following treatment for iron deficiency anaemia and TMJ disorder accompanied by masked depression. Kawasaki med J. 2009: 35: 329-332
Edward CH, et al. Pica in an urban environment. J Nutr. 1994; 124: 9545- 9625.
Ahmed FE, Gaboli HO, Attalla B. Pica among Sudanese children with sickle cell anemia. Basic Res J Med Clin Sci. 2015;4(1):1-7.
Wang PY, Wang X, Zhang L, Li HF, Chen L, Wang X, Wang B. Bezoar-induced small bowel obstruction: Clinical characteristics and diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2015 Sep 7;21(33):9774. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i33.9774
Hartmann AS, Becker AE, Hampton C, Bryant-Waugh R. Pica and rumination disorder in DSM-5. Psychiatric Annals. 2012 Nov 20;42(11):426-30.
Faustina, O., Twumasi, M.P., Amenawonyo, K.X., Larbie, C., Asomaning, K. and Baffo, J. (2010) Pica Practice among Pregnant Women in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. International Health, 2, 282-286. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inhe.2010.09.004
Ezzeddin N, Zavoshy R, Noroozi M, Jahanihashemi H, Riseh SH. Prevalence and risk factors for pica during pregnancy in Tehran, Iran. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. 2015 Dec 1;20(4):457-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-015-0198-8
Kariuki L, Lambert C, Purwestri R, Biesalski HK. Trends and consequences of consumption of food and non-food items (pica) by pregnant women in Western Kenya. NFS Journal. 2016 Dec 1; 5:1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2016.09.001
Al-Sharbati MM, Zaidan ZA, Al-Hussaini A, Al-Khalili K. A strange type of Pica. J Sci Res Med Sci. 2003;5(1-2):49–50.
Mikkelsen TB, Anderson AM, Olsen SF. Pica in pregnancy in a privileged population: myth or reality. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. 2006 Oct;85(10):1265-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00016340600676425
Khoushabi F, Ahmadi P, Shadan MR, Heydari A, Miri A, Jamnejad M. Pica practices among pregnant women are associated with lower hemoglobin levels and pregnancy outcome. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2014 Aug 5;4(11):646. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojog.2014.411090
Stein DJ, Bouwer C, Van Heerden B. Pica and the obsessive-compulsive spectrum
disorders [Internet]. 1996 [cited 2015 Oct 6]. Available from: http://scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/7231
Hartmann AS, Becker AE, Hampton C, Bryant-Waugh R. Pica and rumination disorder in DSM-5. Psychiatric Annals. 2012 Nov 20;42(11):426-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3928/00485713-20121105-09
Mortazavi Z, Mohammadi M. Prevalence of pica in pregnant women referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran (2002-2003). African Journal of Food Science. 2010 Oct 31;4(10):642-5.
Simpson E, Mull JD, Longley E, East J. Pica during pregnancy in low-income women born in Mexico. Western Journal of Medicine. 2000 Jul;173(1):20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/ewjm.173.1.20
- Abstract views: 500
- PDF: 194
Copyright (c) 2019 Muhammad Baffah Aminu, Alkali Mohammed, Bala Audu Muhammed, Toyin Abdulrazak, Aniobi Chinedu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.