Acute transverse myelitis following carpet viper snakebite in Northeast Nigeria
Snakebite is a major cause of death and disability in developing countries. The common clinical features of snake envenomation include bleeding, acute kidney injury, dilated pupils and muscle paralysis resulting from the deleterious effects of venom toxins on human plasma proteins, cell membranes, muscle fibers and vascular endothelium. Snakes also harbour pathogenic organisms that may infect bite victims during envenomation, but few studies have described this phenomenon. We herein report a rare case of acute transverse myelitis occurring after snakebite in Northeast Nigeria, and discuss the possible role of bacteria and viruses after excluding other potential causes of myelopathy. This knowledge may help improve the care of snakebite victims among internists and emergency physicians.
World Health Organization: Snake Envenoming, published April 8, 2019. Accessed November 15, 2019 at https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/snakebite-envenoming.
Habib AG, Kuznik A, Hamza M, Abdullahi MI, Chedi BA, Chippaux JP, et al. Snakebite is under-appreciated: Appraisal of burden from West Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015; 9(9): e0004088. Doi:10.137/journal.pntd.0004088. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004088
Chisale M. Snake and snakebites – Part 2. World Health Organization Pharmaceuticals Newsletter 2008; 5(1).
Margekar SL, Gaharwar R, Jayant SS, Jatav OP, Singhal A, Margekar VG. Encephalopathy: An unusual neurological manifestation following snakebite. Ind J Clin Pract 2013; 24: 556-8.
Paul G, Paul BS, Puri S. Snakebite and stroke: Our experience of two cases. Ind J Crit Care Med 2014; 18: 257-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-5229.130585
Singh RB, Kumar A. Neuronal cell damage and stroke in a female following snakebite. JSM Cell 2014; 2: 1009.
Dahlin CR, Hughes DF, Meshaka Jr. WE, Coleman C, Henning JD. Wild snakes harbour West Nile Virus. One Health 2016: 136-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2016.09.003
Graham SP, Hassan HK, Chapman T, White G, Guyer C, Unnasch TR. Serosurveillance of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus in amphibians and reptiles from Alabama, USA. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012; 86: 540-544. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0283
Ghosh T, Biswas MK, Roy P, Guin C. Short review of different microflora from the oral cavity of snakes. Uttar Pradesh J Zool 2017; 37: 30-34.
Chen CM, Wu KG, Chen CJ, Wang CM. Bacterial infection in association with snakebite: A 10-year experience in a northern Taiwan medical center. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2011; 44: 456-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2011.04.011
Aundhakar SC, Bharadiya AA, Panpalia GN, Bhalla DG. Snakebite complicated by bacterial meningitis. Int J Med Toxicol Forensic Med 2013; 3: 34-37.
West TW. Transverse myelitis: A review of the presentation, diagnosis, and initial management. Discov Med 2013; 16(88): 167-77.
Bitik B, Ucar M, Tezcan ME, Mercan R, Tufan A, Kocer B, et al. Transverse myelitis in Behcet’s disease: a series of four cases and review of the literature. Clin Exper Rheumatol 2013; 31 (Suppl 77): S20-S24.
Karakonstantis S, Galani D, Maragou S, Koulouridi A, Kalemaki D, Lydakis C. A rare case of acute transverse myelitis associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and osteomyelitis. Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2017; 3: 17029. DoI: 10.1038/scsandc.2017.29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/scsandc.2017.29
Kalkan G, Karaoglu A, Vurucu S, Unay B, Gok F, Akin R, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia accompanied with transverse myelitis. Eur J Gen Med 2012; 9: 203-204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/82463
- Abstract views: 189
- PDF: 99
Copyright (c) 2019 Nura H. Alkali, Sulaiman T. Sa'ad, Abubakar Saidu, Jacob A. Dunga, Fadimatu K. Sa'ad, Godiya Ishaya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.