Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic kidney disease in north eastern Nigeria

  • Ijuptil Chiroma Division of Endocrine and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Nigeria.
  • Mohammad Maina Sulaiman | Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nigeria.
  • Bilkisu Mohammed Mubi Division of Endocrine and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Nigeria.
  • Akilahyel Auta Ndahi Department of Internal Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • Ahidiyu Anaryu Mamza Division of Endocrine and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Nigeria.
  • Mustapha Lawan Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nigeria.
  • Umar Loskurima Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nigeria.
  • Jummai Shettima Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
  • Abdullahi Oteikwu Amali Department of Internal Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
  • Ibrahim Ummate Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Nigeria.


Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. In northeastern Nigeria the epidemiology and risk factors have not been fully studied. This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence and risk factors of DKD in Maiduguri, north eastern Nigeria. The study population consisted of adult diabetic patients recruited consecutively at the diabetic clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Maiduguri. Socio-demographic variables including age, sex, weight, BMI, as well as laboratory parameters, were obtained from each patient. Glomerular filtration rate was derived from CKD-EPI formula using serum creatinine. Two hundred and sixty-one diabetic patients were recruited. The prevalence of DKD among them was 42.9%. Classification based on eGFRshowed that 35(13.4%) patients had hyperfiltration; 48 (18.4%) stage I; 66 (25.3%) stage II; 68 (26.1%) stage III; 36 (13.8%) stage IV; 8 (3.1%) stage V. One hundred and seventeen (44.8%) had proteinuria. Low eGFR <60ml/1.73M2 was associated with age >50 years (r=1.039, p=0.011); male sex (r=-0.899, p=0.008); hyperuricaemia (r=1.010, p=0.000); low PCV (r=1.276, p=0.000); HbA1C (r=1.127, p=0.030); proteinuria (r=2.011, p=0.004).This study has shown that chronic kidney disease is common among diabetic patients in northeastern Nigeria. Age, male sex, hyperuricaemia, low PCV, high HbA1C levels and proteinuria were found to be associated with development of DKD.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


WHO. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complication part 1. Geneva: WHO; 1999.

IDF Diabetes atlas. Atlas 9th edition 2019.Available form:

Uloko AE, Musa BM, Ramalan MA, et al Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Nigeria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Diabetes Ther 2018;9:1307-16. DOI:

Tuttle KR, Bakris GL, Bilous RW, et al. Diabetic Kidney Disease: a report from ADA consensus conference. Diabetes care 2014;37:2864-83. DOI:

National Kidney Foundation. KDIGO 2012 Clinical practice guideline for evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl 2013;3:1-50.

Afkarian M, Zelnick LR, Hall YN, et al. Clinical manifestation of Kidney disease among US adults with diabetes, 1988-2014. JAMA 2016;316:602-10. DOI:

De Boer IH, Rue TC, Hall YN, et al J. Temporal trends in the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease in the United State. JAMA 2011;305:2532-9. DOI:

De Boer IH, DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Kidney disease and related findings in the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study. Diabetes care 2014;37:24-30 DOI:

United States Renal Data System. Annual Data Report; Epidemiology of Kidney Disease in the United State. Bethesda, MD, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2019. Available from:

Wagnew F, Eshetie S, Kibret GD, et al. Diabetic nephropathy and hypertension in diabetes patients of sub-Saharan countries: a systemic review and meta-analysis. BMC Res Notes 2018;11:565. DOI:

Alebiosu CO, Ayodele OE. The increasing prevalence of diabetic nephropathy as a cause of end stage renal disease in Nigeria. Tropical Doctor 2006;36:218-9. DOI:

Arogundade FA, Sanusi AA, Hassan MO, Akinsola AA. The pattern, clinical characteristics and outcome of ESRD in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Is there a change in trend? Afr Health Sci 2011;11: 594-601.

Kenge AP, Echouffo-Tcheugui J-B, Mbanya J-C. New insights on diabetes mellitus and obesity in Africa –part 1: prevalence, pathogenesis and comorbidities. Heart 2013;99:979-83. DOI:

Mbanya JCN, Motala AA, Sobngwi E, et al. Diabetes in sub-saharan Africa. Lancet 2010;375:2254-66. DOI:

Fox CS, Matsushita K, Woodward M, et al. Chronic kidney disease prognosis consortium. Associations of kidney disease measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease in individuals without diabetes: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2012;380:1662-73. DOI:

Alebiosu CO, Odusan O, Jaiyesimi A. Morbidity in relation to stage of diabetic nephropathy in type-2 diabetic patients. J Natl Med Assoc 2003;95:1042.

Ajayi S, Mamven M, Ojii D. eGFR and chronic kidney disease stages among newly diagnosed asymptomatic hypertensives and diabetics seen in atertiary health center in Nigeria. Ethn Dis 2014;24:220-5.

Ulasi II, Ijeoma CK. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in Nigerian patients with end-stage renal disease. Int J Med Health Dev 1998;3:40-2.

Alebiosu CO. Clinical Diabetic Nephropathy in a Tropical African Population. West Afr J Med 2003;22:152-5.

Duan JY, Duan GC, Wang CJ, et al. Prevalenec and risk factors of chronic kidney disease and diabetic kidney disease in a central Chinese urban population: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Nephrology 2020;21:115. DOI:

Noubiap JJN, Naidoo J, Kengne AP. Diabetic nephropathy in Africa: A systematic review. World J Diabetes 2015;10:759-73. DOI:

Doria A, Galecki AT, Spino C, et al. Serum Urate Lowering with Allopurinol and Kidney function in Type 1 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2020;382:2493-503. DOI:

Diabetic kidney disease, prevalence, risk factors, north eastern Nigeria
  • Abstract views: 28

  • PDF: 14
How to Cite
Chiroma, Ijuptil, Mohammad Maina Sulaiman, Bilkisu Mohammed Mubi, Akilahyel Auta Ndahi, Ahidiyu Anaryu Mamza, Mustapha Lawan, Umar Loskurima, Jummai Shettima, Abdullahi Oteikwu Amali, and Ibrahim Ummate. 2021. “Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Kidney Disease in North Eastern Nigeria”. Annals of African Medical Research 3 (2).