Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic kidney disease in north eastern Nigeria

Published: April 1, 2021
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Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. In northeastern Nigeria the epidemiology and risk factors have not been fully studied. This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence and risk factors of DKD in Maiduguri, north eastern Nigeria. The study population consisted of adult diabetic patients recruited consecutively at the diabetic clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Maiduguri. Socio-demographic variables including age, sex, weight, BMI, as well as laboratory parameters, were obtained from each patient. Glomerular filtration rate was derived from CKD-EPI formula using serum creatinine. Two hundred and sixty-one diabetic patients were recruited. The prevalence of DKD among them was 42.9%. Classification based on eGFRshowed that 35(13.4%) patients had hyperfiltration; 48 (18.4%) stage I; 66 (25.3%) stage II; 68 (26.1%) stage III; 36 (13.8%) stage IV; 8 (3.1%) stage V. One hundred and seventeen (44.8%) had proteinuria. Low eGFR <60ml/1.73M2 was associated with age >50 years (r=1.039, p=0.011); male sex (r=-0.899, p=0.008); hyperuricaemia (r=1.010, p=0.000); low PCV (r=1.276, p=0.000); HbA1C (r=1.127, p=0.030); proteinuria (r=2.011, p=0.004).This study has shown that chronic kidney disease is common among diabetic patients in northeastern Nigeria. Age, male sex, hyperuricaemia, low PCV, high HbA1C levels and proteinuria were found to be associated with development of DKD.

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