Bone marrow aspiration cytology in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi State, Nigeria: Indications and diagnostic utility
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Bone Marrow Aspiration (BMA) cytology is an important diagnostic and monitoring tool where cytological details of the marrow elements are examined using light microscopy. Various hematological diseases are diagnosed and monitored by using BMA. This study aimed at reporting a 3-year BMA experience of Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH) Bauchi. This was a retrospective study that involved the use of records of the bone marrow aspirates done from January 1st, 2016 to December 31st, 2018. The age, sex, indications for BMA, anatomical site and final bone marrow diagnosis were collated. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 23.0 software. One hundred and three (103) bone marrow aspirations were performed during the period under review. Two third of the participants were males, with the median age of 40.0 years and a range of 5 months to 92 years. The commonest indication for BMA was recurrent anemia 45.6%, followed by splenomegaly, fever and lymphadenopathy with 11.7% each. While, the commonest diagnosis by BMA was megaloblastic anemia (28.2%). Mixed nutritional deficiency and Bone Marrow (BM) metastasis are the commoner BMA diagnoses with 12.6% each. Recurrent anemia is the commonest indication for BMA and nutritional anemias (megaloblastic and combined nutrients deficiency) are the commonest BMA diagnoses in Bauchi. Proper evaluation of patients by the clinicians before referral is recommended to ensure that only those that really need the procedure are subjected to it.
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