Prevalence and patterns of adverse events following immunisation among children less than 24 months attending immunisation clinics in Kano, Nigeria
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
Adverse Events Following Immunisation (AEFI) contribute to child morbidity and mortality as they often lead to low uptake of vaccines with consequent persistence of vaccine-preventable diseases. It is essential to assess the prevalence of AEFIs in northern Nigeria, where misconceptions about immunisation exist. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of AEFI among children less than 24 months after attending immunisation clinics in Kano, Nigeria. Using a mixed-methods design, adapted intervieweradministered questionnaires were assigned to a cross-section of 384 mother-baby pairs who presented to the immunisation clinics of selected primary healthcare centres (PHCs) within metropolitan Kano. This was followed by six sessions of focus group discussion with a sub-sample of the mothers. Logistic regression and the framework approach were used to analyse the data. The prevalence of AEFI was (43.5%, n=164), and most cases (72.4%, n=273) were mild. Fever was the most common type of AEFI reported (66.5%, n=109) and was higher among infants less than three months (44.5%, n=73). Age of the index child was the only significant predictor of AEFI (OR:0.18, 95% CI: 0.10-0.35). Our study shows that AEFI was common among children less than 24 months old in Kano. We recommend sensitisation and health education of caregivers using valuable communication strategies and sufficient training of immunisation service providers on professional ways to deliver these vaccines safely.
Legesse E, Dechasa W. An assessment of child immunisation coverage and its determinants in Sinana District, Southeast. BMC Pediatrics 2015;15:1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-015-0345-4
Nisarg DJ, Hiren KP, Krunal CS, et. al. Pattern of adverse events following immunisation in an Indian Teaching Hospital. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2013;2:62–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.62-68
Ogunyemi RA, Odusanya OO. A survey of knowledge and reporting practices of primary healthcare workers on adverse experiences following immunisation in Alimosho local government area, Lagos. Niger Postgrad Med J 2016;23:79-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/1117-1936.186300
Hu Y, Qian L Q, Luoya LL, et al. Surveillance for adverse events following immunisation from 2008 to 2011 in Zhejiang Province, China. Am Soc Microbiol 2013;20:211–7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00541-12
World Health Organization. Causality assessment of an adverse event following immunisation (AEFI): user manual for the revised WHO classification (Second edition). Geneva: 2018. Accessed March 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/causality-assessment-aefi-user-manual-2019
Choe Y. J, Bae G. Management of vaccine safety in Korea. Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2013;2:40–5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2013.2.1.40
Lawan UM, Amole GT, Wali NY, et al. Pattern of adverse events following immunisation in nourished and malnourished infants in Kano, North-Western Nigeria. Sahel Med J 2016;19:131-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/1118-8561.192394
Mort M, Baleta A, Destefano F, et al. World Health Organization. Vaccine safety basics: learning manual. World Health Organization; 2013.
Santos MC, Netto P. Prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of adverse events following immunisation in children. Acta Paul Enferm 2016;9:626-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0194201600088
Yu H, Yaping C. Completeness and timeliness of vaccination and determinants for low and late uptake among young children in eastern China. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2014;10:1408–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4161/hv.28054
Sebastian J, Gurumurthy P, Ravi MD, Ramesh M. Active surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI): a prospective 3-year vaccine safety study. Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother 2019;21;7:2515135519889000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2515135519889000
Masuka JT, Khoza S. Adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reports from the Zimbabwe expanded programme on immunisation (ZEPI): an analysis of spontaneous reports in Vigibase® from 1997 to 2017. BMC Public Health 2019;19:1166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7482-x
Afolaranmi TO, Hassan ZI, Sodipo OY, et al. Knowledge of adverse events following immunisation, its prevalence and actions of mothers of children aged 0-23 months in a tertiary health institution in Jos, North Central Nigeria. J Med Trop 2020;22:57–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/jomt.jomt_45_19
Adam VY, Onowugbeda ED, Osuji OI, Omohwovo OD. Prevalence and management of perceived adverse events following immunisation in infants attending Well Baby Clinics in Benin City, Nigeria. J Comm Med Pri Health Care 2020;32:57-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/jcmphc.v32i2.5
National Population Commission (Nigeria) and ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF; 2019.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2017 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2016-17, Survey Findings Report. Abuja, Nigeria: Accessed June 2021. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/reports/multiple-indicator-cluster-survey-2016-17-mics
Ajay S, Micah B. Sampling techniques & determination of sample size in applied statistics research: An overview. Int J Econ Commerce Manage 2014;11:1–22.
Tsafack, M, Ateudjieu, J. Improving community-based AEFI (Adverse events following immunisation) reporting rate through telephone ‘beep’ in a Cameroon health district: A randomised field trial. Pan Afr Med J 2015;22:1–7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.22.351.8368
Mohammad S, Zaidi A, Khowaja S, et al. Evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey Coverage; timeliness and determinants of immunisation completion in Pakistan. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2014;10:1712-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4161/hv.28621
Harris T, Nair J, Fediurek J, Deeks SL. Assessment of sex-specific differences in adverse events following immunisation reporting in Ontario. Vaccin 2017;35:2600-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.03.035
Adebayo BE, Oladokun RE. Immunisation coverage in a rural community in southwestern Nigeria. Vaccin 2012;3:20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7560.1000143
Copyright (c) 2021 the Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
PAGEPress has chosen to apply the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.