Influence of BMI on foot posture alignment in resting gait of secondary school children in Lagos metropolis aged 10 to 18 years

Published: September 13, 2021
Abstract Views: 448
PDF: 112
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


The study was to determine the influence of BMI on foot posture alignment in the resting gait of secondary school children. A localized, two-stage, stratified, cross-sectional, and descriptive survey was carried out in 10 secondary schools involving a sample secondary student population of 518 students, 235 males, and 283 females. The result shows that there was a statistically significant association (X2=32.4345, p=0.000) between the BMI of student’s cohort and their age. There was also a statistically significant association between different age groups and gender at p<0.046. Using the statistics of Pearson chi-square analysis, age-dependent variability of BMI (X2=32.4345, p=0.000) was established amongst the study population. The BMI of students for the varying foot alignment was not normally distributed, instead, it was skewed to the right. According to the Kruskal-Wallis H test, there was no statistically significant difference in BMI between the three age cohorts of student’s foot alignment in resting gait; Pearson chisquare, X2 (2) = 4.575, p=0.1015. The distribution of the left foot posture alignment according to the FPI scale indicates that overall, 82.13% of males and 84.40% of females showed normal foot alignment whereas 10.64% and 9.22% of male and female students respectively confirmed slight foot pronation while 7.23% of male students and 6.38% of female students showed slightly supinated feet. This study shows that BMI has no influence on FPI in resting gait. The high incidence of underweight amongst the students’ population could be a reflection of the low socioeconomic status of many families.

Levinger P, Lenz HB, Fotoohabaddi R, et al. Foot posture in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. J Foot Ankle Res 2010;3:1-8. DOI:

AlAbdulwahab SS, Kachanathu SJ. Effects of body mass index on foot posture alignment and core stability in a healthy adult population. J Exerc Rehabil 2016;12:182-7. DOI:

Ganu SS, Panhale V. Effect of Obesity on Arch Index in Young Adults. Online J Health Allied Sc 2013;11:1-3.

Butterworth PA, Urquhart DM, Landorf KB, et al. Foot posture, the range of motion and plantar pressure characteristics in obese and nonobese individuals. Gait Posture 2015;41:465-9. DOI:

Shariff SM, Manaharan T, Shariff AA, Merican AF. Evaluation of foot arch in adult women: comparison between five different footprint parameters. Sains Malaysiana 2017;46:1839–48. DOI:

Puepet FH, Zoakah AI, Chuhwak EK. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban Nigeria adults in Jos. Highland Med Res J 2002;1:13-6. DOI:

Adienbo OM, Hart VO, Oyeyemi WA. High prevalence of obesity among indigenous residents of a Nigerian ethnic group: The Kalabaris in the Niger delta region of South South Nigeria. Greener J Med Sci 2012;2:152-6. DOI:

Ulasi II, Ijoma CK, Onodugo OD, et al. Towards prevention of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: A community-based survey in southeast Nigeria. Kidney Int suppl 2013;3:195-201. DOI:

Gezawa ID, Puepet FH, Mubi BM, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. Niger J Med 2013;22:171-4.

Hue O, Simoneau M, Marcotte J, et al. Body weight is a strong predictor of pos¬tural stability. Gait Posture 2007;26:32-8. DOI:

Steele JR, Riddiford-Harland DL, Mickle KJ. Excessive weight-bearing compromises foot structure and function across the lifespan. In Gefen A, Benayahu D (eds), The Mechanobiology of Obesity and Related Diseases, Springer: New York, 2015; p. 149–79. DOI:

Krishna HS, Basheer R, Jazeel KB, et al. Correlation of body mass index with navicular height in young’s. Inter J Information Res Rev 2018;5:5659-62.

Lin CJ, Lin SC, Huang W, et al. Physiological knock-knee in preschool children: prevalence, correlating factors, gait analysis, and clinical significance. J Pediatr Orthop 1999;19:650–4. DOI:

Redmond AC, Crane YZ, Menz HB. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index. J Foot and Ankle Res 2008;1:6. DOI:

Arthi G, Sadeesh T, Raghuram K. Effect of height, weight and BMI on foot postures of young adult individual. J Clin Diagnos Res 2018;12:AC06-8. DOI:

Lobstein T, Baur I, Uauy R, IASO International Obesity Task Force. Obesity in children and young people – A crisis in Public Health. Obes Rev 2004:5:S4-S85. DOI:

Saltzman CL, Nawoczenski DA, Talbot KD. Measurement of the medial longitudinal arch. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1995;76:45-9. DOI:

Hernandez AJ, Kimura LK, Laraya MHF, Favaro E. Calculation of staheli’s plantar arch index and prevalence of flat feet: a study with 100 children aged 5-9 years. Acta Ortop Bras 2007;15:68-71. DOI:

Evans AM, Karimi L. The relationship between paediatric foot posture and body mass index: do heavier children really have flatter feet? J Foot Ankle Res 2015;8:46. DOI:

Staheli LT, Chew DE, Corbett M. The longitudinal arch. A survey of eight hundred and eighty-two feet in normal children and adults. J Bone Joint Surg 1987;69A:426-8. DOI:

West P, Sweeting H, Young R. Transition matters: pupils’ experiences of the primary-secondary school transition in the West of Scotland and consequences for well-being and attainment. J Res Papers Edu 2010;25:21-50. DOI:

Antentas JM, Vivas E. Impact of the economic crisis on the right to a healthy diet. SESPAS report 2014. Gac Sanit 2014;28:58e61.

Bonaccio M, Di Castelnuovo A, Bonanni A, et al. Decline of the Mediterranean diet at a time of economic crisis. Results from the Moli-sani study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2014;24:853e60. DOI:

Marra M, Migliardi A, Costa G. Health inequalities and nutrition in Italy during crisis times. Epidemiol Prev 2015;39:322e31.

Grammatikopoulou MG, Poulimeneas D, Maraki MI, et al. Geographical distribution of simple and abdominal obesity among 17-year-old adolescents in Greece. Obes Med 2016; 2:31e6. DOI:

Mbaka, Godwin O., and Mario Adelaja. 2021. “Influence of BMI on Foot Posture Alignment in Resting Gait of Secondary School Children in Lagos Metropolis Aged 10 to 18 Years”. Annals of African Medical Research 4 (1).


Download data is not yet available.